Dr. S.L. Marbaniang
Right since independence, Government of India (GoI) has taken note of the plight of weaker sections of the society like the Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs). Our national leaders were very much concerned at the economic condition of these categories of population chief among them was Dr.Bhim Rao Ambedkar, himself a member of the SC. He was very highly educated, earning his academic degrees from abroad Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, free India’s first Prime Minister included him in the panel for framing the Constitution of India.
Consequently, 15% of seats and 7.50% of seats in higher educational institutions and job vacancies have reserved for these segments of population. In course of time, other categories of people who were deprived of various opportunities all along were also included. Thus, the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) fall in this category. Meanwhile, women were not given same opportunities like their male counterparts. Planners and administrators stressed that for a country to march ahead progressively, women too who form about half of the total population, have to enjoy the same benefits. Hence schemes have been initiated from time to time so that they would percolate to those who were and still are in great need.
Employment Service, as in the past, continued making efforts to cater to the special needs of vulnerable sections like Women, Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribes, persons with disabilities and disabled Ex-servicemen job-seekers.
Twenty three Coaching-cum-Guidance Centres for SCs/STs have been set up, one each at Delhi, Jabalpur, Kanpur, Chennai, Hyderabad, Thiruvananthapuram, Kolkata, Jaipur, Ranchi, Surat, Aizawl, Bangalore, Imphal, Hissar, Nagpur, Bhubaneshwar, Guwahati, Mandi, Kohima, Jowai, Jammu, Jalandhar and Naharlagun (Arunachal Pradesh).
1. provide employment related coaching-cumguidance to SC/ST applicants.
2. provide information on job requirements and the type of tests/interviews they are likely to face when called by the employers.
3. take up appropriate follow up action with the employers to ascertain the results of submission against reserved vacancies.
4. undertake job development work besides providing occupational information/vocational guidance & counselling and organising Confidence Building Programmes for job- seekers.
5. provide facilities to SC/ST job-seekers for practicing shorthand and typing at the above Centres except Coaching-cum-Guidance Centres located at Aizawl, Hissar, Bhubaneshwar, Guwahati, Mandi, Kohima, Jowai, Jammu, Jalandharand Naharlagun.
6. In fifteen phases of the extended schemes, 5130 SC/ST candidates have successfully completed the coaching. The 16th phase is in progress w.e.f. 20.07.2010.
SPECIAL COACHING SCHEME FOR SCs/STs salient features
1. A Special Coaching Scheme (non-plans) to prepare SC/ST candidates for competitive examinations/selection tests for Group ‘C’ posts is also being operated by DGE& T in Delhi and Ghaziabad.
2. So far, 7087 SC/ST job seekers have successfully completed coaching for clerical/stenographer posts in 26 phases.
3. The coaching is of 11 months’ duration and the trainees are given stipend per month besides, free course books and limited stationery. The Coaching Institutes are also given professional charges for imparting coaching to SC/ST candidates.
4. Guided by the benefits derived from the above Special Coaching Scheme, the scheme has been extended to 21 more places at Kanpur, Kolkata, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ranchi, Surat, Guwahati, Imphal, Hisar, Jabalpur, Chennai, Thiruvanathapuram, Jaipur, Bhubaneshwar, Mandi Nagpur, Delhi, Jammu. Jalandhar, Kohima and Naharlagun.
5. In 15 phases of the extended scheme, 5,130 SC/ST candidates have successfully completed the coaching. The 16th phase is in progress with effect from 20.07.2010.
SCHEME FOR PROVIDING COMPUTER TRAINING TO SC/ST JOB SEEKERS REGISTERED WITH EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES
This scheme was started with effect from February 2004, with a view to provide Computer Training to SC/ST educated job seekers registered with the Employment Exchanges through outsourcing training facilities. The training of six months duration was arranged at Bangalore, Bhubneshwar, Chennai, Delhi, Guwahati, Hissar, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Jabalpur, Kolkata, Nagpur, Surat, Kanpur, Thiruvanathapuram, Mandi & Ranchi and is coordinated by respective Coaching-cum-Guidance Centres located at these places. So far 5 phases of the scheme have been completed and 3086 candidates imparted training. It has been observed that six month Computer Training Course has not been of much help to the candidates to provide employability in view of changing demands in the Labour Market. From the year 2009-10, it has therefore been, changed to one year ‘0’ level Computer Training course to 1000 SC/ST candidates through DOEACC society under the Department of Information Technology which has been started w.e.f. 03.08.2009. In addition to the above said places, the Training is also being imparted at Jammu, Jalandhar, Imphal and Kohima w.e.f. 03.08.2009. The 2nd & 3rd batch of ‘O’ level Computer Training is in progress with 1000 candidates and 960 candidates w.e.f. 01.01.2010 and 15.07.2010 respectively.
PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES
The Employment Service has been making special efforts to cater to the special needs of disabled job-seekers, performance of which for the last five years is given in subsequent para.
Performance of Employment Exchanges in respect of Disabled Job-Seekers
There has been consistent increase in the number of persons with disabilities on the Live Register.The number of disabled job-seekers placed in employment during 2008 was 3.7 thousand.
SPECIAL EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES FOR physically HANDICAPPED
Although, Employment Exchanges under the National Employment Service are generally responsible for the placement of Physically Handicapped, Special Employment Exchanges were also set-up for their selective placement.
These exchanges attempt at securing for the disabled the most satisfying form of employment suitable to their residual physical and mental potentialities. As on October, 2010, 42 Special Exchanges were functioning in the country.
In pursuance of the recommendations of the Working Group on Employment Service and the Task Force on the reorganisation of Special Employment Exchanges, it was decided to set up Special Cells in the Employment Exchanges for promoting employment of the people with disabilities.
Thirty Eight Special Cells for the physically handicapped with a Special Placement Officer attached to the normal Employment Exchanges and funded by the Central Government have so far been set up by the Ministry of Social Justice & Employment. These are in addition to the Special Cells/Units opened for the handicapped applicants at the Employment Exchanges by various State Governments.
VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION CENTRES FOR HANDICAPPED
The Ministry of Labour & Employment is fully responsive and committed to the implementation of the provisions of the Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995. The Directorate General of Employment & Training (DGE& T) has been regularly co-ordinating and supporting Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, which is the Nodal Ministry for the welfare of people with disabilities. Twenty Vocational Rehabilitation Centres (VRCs) for handicapped have been functioning in the country, out of which, one Centre at Vadodara has been set up exclusively for women with disabilities.
Three new Centres one each at Una, Puducherry and Srinagar sanctioned in 2005-06 have been made functional. These centres evaluate the residual capacities of people with disabilities and provide them adjustment training and skill training with a view to integrate them in the economic main stream and make them productive citizens of the country. These centres play pro-active role in creating public awareness and community participation in the rehabilitation of people with disabilities.
During-2010-11, these centres registered 19676 evaluated 19399 and rehabilitated 8280 persons with disabilities. Three barrier free buildings for VRCs one each at Bhubaneswar, Kanpur and Kolkata have been constructed and functioning in the new buildings. Construction of two more barrier free buildings for VRC, Agartala and Guwahati are underway. Skill development Initiative scheme based on Modular Employable Skill has been introduced in VRCs for imparting training to Persons with Disabilities.
During 2009-10 VRC, Hyderabad, Bhubaneswar, Chennai and Jabalpur have received National Award for placement Agency for Persons with Disabilities in India from Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment. During 2010-11 two VRCs located at Thiruvananthapuram and Kanpur also received National Award for placement agency.
GoI has also earmarked certain percentages of jobs for disabled ex-servicemen and dependents in central establishments. To assist them in this regard an Ex-Servicement Cell has been created.
[Ref: Union Ministry of Labour & Employment, 2010-11]
Meghalaya is a State where about 80% of its population is ST with a miniscule proportion of SC. Unemployment is becoming very high, especially due to the increase in number of educated skilled and qualified youths who pass out from various educational institutions. The Government of Meghalaya should take full advantage of these central schemes.